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Gallenberg, Wenzel Robert Graf von

Their marriage was outwardly stable, but not a very happy one. In his older brother became King of Prussia. Indeed, he had to flee to England for a while, disguised as a merchant. He returned and helped to put down an uprising in Baden , where he commanded the Prussian army.

William I, German Emperor

In October , he became governor-general of Rhineland and Westfalia , with a seat at the Electoral Palace in Koblenz. William's opposition to liberal ideas gradually softened. In , the prince was raised to the rank of a field-marshal and made governor of the federal fortress of Mainz. In January , William became Prince Regent for his brother, initially only temporarily but after October on a permanent basis.

Against the advice of his brother, William swore an oath of office on the Prussian constitution and promised to preserve it "solid and inviolable". William appointed a liberal, Karl Anton von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen , as Minister President and thus initiated what became known as the "New Era" in Prussia, although there were conflicts between William and the liberal majority in the Landtag on matters of reforming the armed forces.


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In July, a student from Leipzig attempted to assassinate William, but he was only lightly injured. William inherited a conflict between Frederick William and the liberal Landtag. He was considered to be politically neutral as he intervened less in politics than his brother. In the Landtag refused an increase in the military budget needed to pay for the already implemented reform of the army.

This involved raising the peacetime army from , to , men and boost the annual number of new recruits from 40, to 63, However, the truly controversial part was the plan to keep the length of military service raised in from two years at three years. Bismarck, a conservative Prussian Junker and loyal friend of the king, liked to see his working relationship with William as that of a vassal to his feudal superior.

Nonetheless, it was Bismarck who effectively directed the politics, domestic as well as foreign; on several occasions he gained William's assent by threatening to resign. After the latter was won by Prussia, William wanted to march on to Vienna and annex Austria, but was dissuaded from doing so by Bismarck and Crown Prince Frederick.

During a heated discussion, Bismarck threatened to resign if William continued to Vienna; Bismarck got his way. William had to content himself with becoming the de facto ruler of the northern two-thirds of Germany. Prussia annexed several of Austria's allies north of the Main, as well as Schleswig-Holstein.


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It also forced Saxe-Lauenburg into a personal union with Prussia which became a full union in In , the North German Confederation was created as a federation federally organised state of the North German and Central German states under the permanent presidency of Prussia. Not expressis verbis , but in function he was the head of state.

Via treaties with the South German states, he also became commander of their armies in times of war. This was decided on by the legislative organs, the Reichstag and Bundesrat, and William agreed to this on 18 December in the presence of a Reichstag delegation. The new constitution and the title of Emperor came into effect on 1 January William, however, hesitated to accept the constitutional title, as he feared that it would overshadow his own title of Prussian king. The date was chosen as the coronation date of the first Prussian king in To many intellectuals, the coronation of William was associated with the restoration of the Holy Roman Empire.

Felix Dahn wrote a poem, " Macte senex Imperator " Hail thee, old emperor in which he nicknamed William Barbablanca whitebeard , a play on the name of the medieval emperor Frederick Barbarossa redbeard. William I was thus portrayed as a second coming of Barbarossa. In he arbitrated a boundary dispute between Great Britain and the United States, deciding in favor of the U.

In his memoirs, Bismarck describes William as an old-fashioned, courteous, infallibly polite gentleman and a genuine Prussian officer, whose good common sense was occasionally undermined by "female influences". This was a reference to William's wife, who had been educated by, among others Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and was intellectually superior to her husband. She was also at times very outspoken in her opposition to official policies as she was a liberal.

He was tried, convicted, sentenced to death, and executed on 16 August A second attempt to assassinate William I was made on 2 June by Dr. Karl Nobiling. As the Emperor drove past in an open carriage, the assassin fired two shots from a shotgun at him from the window of a house off the Unter den Linden. Nobiling shot himself in an attempt to commit suicide. While William survived this attack, the assassin died from his self-inflicted wound three months later.

To do this, Bismarck partnered with Ludwig Bamberger , a Liberal, who had written on the subject of Socialism, "If I don't want any chickens, then I must smash the eggs. The laws were extended every 2—3 years. Despite the reprisals the Social Democratic Party increased its influence among the masses. Under pressure of the mass working-class movement the laws were repealed on 1 October In response William, his wife Augusta, and his son the crown prince travelled to Russia against the advice of Bismarck to mend fences in face-to-face talks.

However, by once again threatening to resign, Bismarck overcame the opposition of William to a closer alliance with Austria.

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A group of anarchists had prepared an attack using dynamite which failed due to the wet weather. The Berlin Conference of —85 organized by Otto von Bismarck can be seen as the formalization of the Scramble for Africa.

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Claiming much of the left-over territories in Africa and Oceania that were yet unclaimed, Germany managed to build the large German colonial empire. Despite the assassination attempts and William's unpopular role in the uprising, he and his wife were very popular, especially in their later years. Many people considered them the personification of "the old Prussia" and liked their austere and simple lifestyle.

He was buried on 16 March at the Mausoleum at Park Charlottenburg. The statue next to the Stadtschloss, Berlin was melted down by the government of East Berlin in From to more than 1, memorials to William I were constructed. It was a United Protestant denomination, bringing together Reformed and Lutheran believers. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

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Finally you will get a summary of your order with all necessary information. Navy Imagery - Rear Adm. Includes views of Adolf Hitler's birthday celebration with parades and public festivities.

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Includes views of the Nationaler Feiertag des Deutschen Volkes national holiday demonstrations in Berlin. Also includes views of dedication of the Air defense school Reichsluftschutzschule in Wannsee with views of flag ceremonies and funeral of Friedrich von der Schulenburg.

Includes meeting with Robert Ley in Hamburg to welcome German military personnel from the Legion Condor returning from Spain, including views of the ship "Wilhelm Gustloff"; a military parade; medal presentation ceremonies and speeches. Contents from captions [April ]: Besuch in der Siedlung Olivetti.

Kranzniederleung am Grabmal des Unbekannten Soldaten durch den Feldmarschall. Grosser Zapfenstreich auf dem Wilhelmplatz. Die grosse Parade der Wehrmacht vor der Technischen Hochschule. Nationaler Feiertag des Deutschen Volkes. Nach der Unterzeichnung auf dem Balkon der Reichskanzlei. Empfang zu Ehren von Graf Ciano bei Aussenminister v. Weihe von Fahnen des Reichsluftschutzbundes. Flotte mit der Legion Condor an Bord ab. Marsch der Legion durch die Stadt.